Gadchiroli is located in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra State and on shares the Maharashtra – Chattisgarh – Telangana border. It is bordered by Chandrapur district to the west, Gondia district to the north, Chattisgarh state to the east, and Telangana state to the south and south west. As of 2011 it is the second least populous district of Maharashtra.
The Gadchiroli district is divided into 12 blocks viz, Korchi, Kurkheda, Wadsa, Armori, Dhanora, Gadchiroli, Chamorshi, Etapalli, Mulchera, Bhamragarh, Aheri and Sironcha. The economy of district is primarily agrarian, with approximately 89 percent of the rural population. Around 73.3 percent of land holdings are small and marginal, with the average land holding of farmer being 1.65 ha. This is higher than state average of 1.44 ha.
Gadchiroli district is located at 19 to 21 latitude and 80 to 81 longitude in South East corner of Maharashtra with altitude of 406-900 meters above mean sea level (MSL). It is surrounded by the districts Rajnandgaon and Bastar of Chhatishgarh State in the East side, Chandrapurdist in the West, Karimnagardist of Telangana State in the South and Bhandara&Gondiadists in the North side.
Gadchiroli district is characterized by warm and humid climate in June to October and later on there is gradual decline in the temperature from October onwards and December happens to be a coolest month of the year. In summer temperature is very high. The district comes under heavy and assured rainfall zone having average rainfall 1314 mm and receives 80 percent rain during June to October.
The major portion the area derived from Red Lateratic soil and Yellowish Brown soil. The medium black soils 591970 ha spread in the most of the part of Dhanora, Kurkheda, Etapalli, Aheri and some part of the remaining block followed by deep black soil 141495 ha.
Gadchiroli district is surrounded by major rivers Wainganga,Pranhita, Godavari andIndravati. Dina, Gadhavi, Khobragadi, Pornimbi, Kotari are also main rivers.Palamgad, Bhamragad, Surjagad and Tippagadh hills are in the East of the district. Total out of 76 percent area of the district is covered with forest hills.
As per census 2011 total population of the district is 10, 72,942 comprising of 5, 41,328 male and 5,31,614 female. The population growth rate is 10.58 percent in decade. Which is lower than the growth rate of Maharashtra. Density of the population in the district is 74 per sq.km. out of which 89.00 percent is rural, The SC and ST population in the district is 11.20 percent and 38.30 percent respectively. The literacy percentage of the district is 74.36 .
Land Use Pattern and Land Holding
Total geographical area of the district is 14,41,200 ha. out of which 16 percent area is under cultivation. While 76 percent is under forest and unused land.
In the district, there are total 1,34,855 land holders, covering 2,07,938 lakh ha. Marginal farmers having land up to 1 ha are 38 percent while small farmers 31 percent and others above two hector are 31 percent.